Staffing in Educational Institutions: Experiences from Tanzania

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At IES, Ullrich led a team of eight staff and 21 faculty and was responsible for overall academic and operational management in an atmosphere of significant participant growth. Ullrich earned his Ph. His own study abroad experience includes doctoral field research in Tanzania, a year at Oxford University, and two semesters at U.

Nicole has held senior leadership positions in both the health and higher education sectors in Australia. Prior to joining CIEE, Nicole worked for the University of Newcastle, Australia, where she held responsibility for coordinating and evaluating initiatives and strategies to support enhanced retention and success of students, and for supporting the implementation of institutional strategies relating to priority areas of the student experience.

Her interest in study abroad commenced as a young high school student, where she spent 12 months as an exchange student, living and studying in Sapporo, Japan. David grew up in Kyoto and speaks Japanese with the local accent. Were the policies implemented efficiently and effectively? Did the electorate, taxpayers, and users of public services often these are distinct groups obtain value-for-money. Peter M. Jackson Public sectors are not famous for efficiency.

Though no one can be certain of this until the matter has been properly researched, casual observation suggests that most economists probably believe that governments are less efficient than enterprises in the market sector of society. This observation seems to be made not only about public sectors of different levels worldwide, but also about governments of a variety of types in many different societies. Economists are certainly not alone in associating governments with red tape, cumbersome procedures, and bureaucratic inflexibility: whatever the balance of lay opinion may be, there are certainly large numbers of laymen of assorted ideologies and nationalities who claim that governments they have observed are inefficient, by which they presumably mean less efficient than other enterprises with which they are familiar.

Some of the complaints about the inefficiency of government may also be focused on existing legislation which is or is thought to be ill suited to the ends it is supposed to attain, rather than with the effectiveness of public administration itself. Are there any theoretical considerations that should lead us to expect that government operations are generally less efficient than those of private enterprises? There are a wide variety of ad hoc explanations and obiter dictum about the causes of the alleged government inefficiency in the literature of economics, and some seminal writings devoted directly or indirectly to this subject.

Some of the discussions of the causes of inefficiency in the production of public outputs are in the literature of what is, in the united republic of Tanzania, calling the Planning- Programming-Budgeting System PPB , or in discussions of cost-benefit analysis. But others are in the welfare economics or public finance literature on what is coming to be called the theory of public expenditure. The PPB and cost-benefit discussions and the literature on the theory of public goods or expenditure have never been properly integrated—indeed, at times it seems as though they are developing independently.

Perhaps this is in part because the students of cost-benefit analysis and especially PPB are often applied economists with only a limited interest in pure theory, whereas those who write about the theory of public expenditure are often theorists with only a sporadic interest in the day to day workings of government. The complaints about government inefficiency that are of interest here refer mainly to public production or administration, rather than to any stupidities or inequities in basic public policies. It has been widely argued that organizations using balanced PMS report better performance than those that do not Lingle and Schiemann, PMS have undergone considerable changes in the last twenty years with a number of different models developing to help organizations define an appropriate set of balanced — financial and non- financial — performance measures.

Yet the most popular model is that of Kaplan and Norton, , the balanced scorecard. The following section, hence, provides a brief review of the most commonly used balanced frameworks as well as the latest developments, highlighting both their strengths and weaknesses, which, in turn, will help identify problems of using these models in determining pay. Performance measurement has received considerable criticisms in the s and early s for being restricted to financial measures and robust accounting methods in evaluating the performance of organizations or more specifically their profitability.

Mostly, it is argued, that these measures ignore the softer less measurable performance indicators as well as the relationship between different business units and their variable objectives Euske et al. Many researchers have also referred to the number of problems that arise from relying on such systems such as short-termism Crawford and Cox, ; Ghalayini et al. In response to these criticisms and dissatisfactions with the traditional system new performance measurement frameworks have developed, out of which, the most well-known and commonly used is the balanced scorecard.

More specifically, the balanced scorecard is based on the combination of four key perspectives in performance measurement: financial perspective, customer perspective, internal business processes, and learning and growth. Evidently, unlike the traditional systems the balanced scorecard puts strategy, vision and communication in the centre rather than control. Evidence on the success of the balanced scorecard has been reported across many industries and within the public sector in the US Hepworth, Though, attention was drawn to the complexity of the system and the need for commitment towards accepting it for the success of its application, and many pitfalls and problems were identified in practice Kaplan and Norton, b , no failures of the concept were identified Hepworth, According to Ghalayini et al.

Moreover, as a multi-stakeholders approach, the balanced scorecard has been criticized for not considering the interests of all stakeholders, such as suppliers, competitors, regulators, and community Neely et al. Brignal and Model, , further argue that the balanced scorecard literature has neglected the relative bargaining power of different stakeholders in determining whose interests will predominate in an organization and the consequent effects on what aspects of performance are measured, reported and acted upon.

Though there have been some differences of interest in researching both sectors — in the fact that while more clear examples of application and success have been reviewed in the private sector very few are found in the public sector where it has been reported more problematic. A large number of public service organizations around the global have introduced performance-monitoring systems'. In doing so, attention has tended to focus upon the appropriateness and suitability measures and indicators of performance. A great battery of indicators has been published and much ink has been used in evaluating their heuristic value.

What images of performance do these indicators reveal? Performance-monitoring systems have important hidden dimensions below the water-line of indicators and measures. These include the logical foundations and values upon which the whole system rests. Weakness in these areas, along with a lack of appreciation of the different values that lurk in the depths of the performance monitoring system, results in severe implementation problems.

The design of a performance-monitoring system reflects specific images of public administration Kass and Catrow, These ranges from the new public sector management, with its emphasis upon technical developments in public policy analysis, market oriented metaphors and an emphasis upon operational efficiency and effectiveness, to those whose preferred image focuses upon the importance of community and public service values.

This study has assessed the challenges of performance measurement in public sector. Politically the increasing importance of corporate governance has held organizations accountable for not only its economic performance but also its social performance which affects the wider external environment. In other words, there has been a shift from adopting a shareholders approach where performance measurements are concerned with the profitability of the business to a stakeholders approach.

The challenges faced in attempting performance evaluation in country could be said as a unique endeavor in many aspects.

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Therefore, this study will be a valuable contribution in analyzing the challenges associated with performance evaluation of in for profit public sector. As a result, undertaking an academic research on one of the most important reform tools will be of great significance in analyzing the reform programmed from an objective perspective. In the long run this study could also be a blue print of how to proceed further in attempting to institutionalize the appraisal system which has witnessed countless hurdles in achieving a comprehensive success. Access to get data was the main barrier to this study as most of the respondent feared to disclose data as most of the workers are prisoners and their supervisors are prisons officer.

Also medium of communication was a problem to the researcher as most of the respondents prisoners had no knowledge with English language. There is no concrete basis to prove the response given is a true measure of the opinion of all the employees as a whole. Convenient sampling was used as the mode of conducting the research. The questionnaire contained mostly multiple-choice questions; therefore many respondents may not have given a proper thought before answering the questions.

The response of the respondents may not be accurate thinking that the management might misuse the data. Due to the fact that most of the respondents were junior, the questions might not have been answered with due sincerity. Research questions were arranged in such a way that even confidential information was accessed to some extent.

Redesigning Spaces, Services, and Staffing for Collaborative Student Experiences

Also questioners were in a simple language to fit all group. Theoretical literature, this is a description of what other researchers says about the performance evaluation in public sector in general, empirical literature description of other researchers similar to this study, research gap and conceptual frame work.

As early as the third century A. Systematic employee appraisal techniques came into prominence just after the end of World War I. Most of the merit rating plans from to the mids were of the rating scale type with factors, degrees and points. Indeed the analogy between a point plan of job evaluation and a rating scale plan of merit is very close. Some of the other terms currently being used include personnel appraisal, personnel review, progress report, service rating, and performance evaluation and fitness report.

Harouna Saibou, Many of the definitions of organizational commitment focus on commitment-related behaviours and in terms of attitude Mowday et al. Employees who have strong organizational commitments are characterized as having strong belief in the values and goals of the organization, willing to step up efforts in the interests of the organization and have a strong desire to remain in the organization.

Another popular definition is based on the model of organizational commitment developed by Allen et al. Authors such as Cullen, et al. For instance, Elliot stresses that organizational commitment will affect productivity because employees are willing to work hard and Riketta argues that committed employee is assumed to be more determined to work with and has a low turnover intention Elliot, and Sarminah, As a result of low turnover, organizations are more capable in reducing operational costs in managing human resources in terms of recruiting, retaining and training.

Committed workers are also more ethical as they are not missing from work Mathieu et al. In the Public Sector, the management needs to know how well employees had performed their job for the past twelve months. Performance planning is an integral part of performance management.

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The results need to show the level of quality of your people. You then can use this information to change your plans. The introduction of performance-evaluation systems to public service organizations is one of the elements of the new public sector management.

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Some regard the monitoring and measurement of performance as an expression of classical and scientific management techniques. Others are hostile to what they see to be the importation of naive production management techniques from the private sector. Yet others view the production of performance measures as a means of exercising greater control over public service bureaucracies.

While there is some strength in these views, they are too negative and too narrow and can result in the ridiculous conclusions that either the performance of public service organizations should not be subjected to measurement or that such performance is always impossible to measure. Public service organizations are extremely complex: they serve multiple objectives; have a diversity of clients; deliver a wide range of policies and services; and exist within complex and uncertain socio-political environments.

The values which drive such organizations, and against which their performance must be judged, are also more complex. Although researchers argue about the category of fairness, there is a general consensus that organizational justice consists of at least two components, namely distributive and procedural justice Arif et al.

The procedural justice is the perception of workers that procedures used to evaluate their performance is fair while distributive justice means that performance or rewards received from the use of these procedures is fair Greenberg, ; Colquitt et al. Moreover, a study by Tam indicates that the commitment of government employees is higher in the federal government agencies that implement a fair and transparent assessment. Therefore, based on the above discussions, the study proposes the following hypothesis: There is a significant relationship between fairness of performance appraisal with the organizational commitment.

Several studies had shown that the effect of performance appraisal on employee attitudes and behaviour is through the satisfaction of performance evaluation. For example, a study conducted by Tang et al. They suggest that managers have control over the employees' perception of the organizational justice in order to give effect to their satisfaction, commitment and participation in the organization. Another study conducted by Panggabean supports the view that satisfaction of the performance appraisal is important in linking the perception of fairness of performance appraisal with the organizational commitment.

Similarly, a study by Thurston found that the relationship between fairness in performance appraisal with organizational citizenship behaviour is mediated by the satisfaction of the former. Therefore, based on the above arguments, the following hypothesis is proposed: Satisfaction in performance evaluation serves as a mediator of the relationship between fairness of performance appraisal with organizational commitment. The language and concepts of strategic management can be transported between the public and the private sectors, but not without some modification.

This is no more so than at the senior management level of decision-making. In a private company it is the board of directors who are charged with the strategic areas of responsibility. Operating on behalf of the owners of the company the ordinary shareholders they make decisions about where the company should be in five, ten, or 15 years' time. What businesses should they be in? What new products should be introduced and when?

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These decisions position the company to serve its customers; to compete against existing or potential rivals; and to provide a satisfactory return for shareholders and other stakeholders including its employees. What is the equivalent to the board of directors for public service organizations? What is the senior management team that is responsible for creating strategy?

Who are its members? These questions reduce to the single question: 'What is the nature of the governance system of public service organizations? There is a tendency to regard the performance and success of public services as a managerial responsibility. At the operational level that is a reasonable assumption to make — but at the strategic level what does it mean? Who are the members of the senior management team equivalent to the board of directors? This is an inherent problem of the new public sector management paradigm — it fails to specify adequately the organization's governance system, especially the nature of the senior management group.

Who sets the strategic direction for public service organizations? Is it the political leaders central and local? Is it the chief executive and chief officers? Or is it a partnership of both groups? These questions are familiar within the context of the policy-analysis literature — who sets public policy and who is accountable for the outcomes? It is the age-old separation of powers between the legislatures and to be executive branch of government.

For some this will be a statement of the glaringly obvious. But a moment's reflection soon produces a realization to that while political leaders are keen to introduce systems which will ensure operational performance is measured and evaluated, they do little to enable the evaluation of the strategic performance of public services. To do so would be to evaluate the effectiveness of policies and, therefore, to put into the public domain politically sensitive information that would be used to judge, in the political arena, the efficiency and effectiveness would be an appropriate institution.

This image is advocated by the proponents of privatization. Markets are, however, notoriously inefficient in to their capacity to evaluate the externalities that are usually associated with public services. These committees do make some attempt at evaluating the policy strategies adopted by central government departments, but they are often hindered by insufficient information about the internal and external environment of the services.

What is the Select Committee equivalent for local government; the various health boards and the new Next Steps agencies? Indeed, who makes strategy for these organizations? Another imbalance arises between static and dynamic concepts of efficiency. The majority of performance indicators currently in use focus upon static efficiency, that is, the short run. Dynamic efficiency emphasizes the long run, and, therefore, the effectiveness of investment in new productive capacity, including organizational infrastructure and managerial innovations.

The capital expenditure constraints in the public sector suggest that dynamic efficiency has been sacrificed. Improvements in static and dynamic efficiency require that appropriate incentives are in place that will influence decisions and guide actions towards efficiency improvements. Whether or not a suitable balance of incentives exists is taken up below. Jackson, To understand the definition of performance appraisal would enable us lay a solid foundation to capture what the concept of performance appraisal is all about.

Alo defines performance appraisal as a process involving deliberate stock taking of the success, which an individual or organization has achieved in performing assigned tasks or meeting set goals over a period of time. It therefore shows that performance appraisal practices should be deliberate and not by accident. It calls for serious approach to knowing how the individual is doing in performing his or her tasks.

According to Atiomo, every organization should ensure that the individual is clearly aware of what his functions and responsibilities are to make performance appraisal effective.

The data emerging from such an exercise constitutes the primary database for individual development and should be communicated to the subordinate. The above comment of Rao is revealing because one of the major issues in performance appraisal is communication. In a university system, the heads of departments, should communicate the performance of their subordinates to them at the end of every appraisal exercise and discuss the outcome of the appraisal exercise with the subordinates during performance counselling exercise in order to improve their performance in the future.

Types of appraisal Truly speaking, there are basically three types of appraisal. These include confidential or secret appraisal, open appraisal and we also have semi open and semi secret. However, Mamoria and Ryars and Rue identified two types of appraisal, confidential and open appraisal. Confidential Appraisal In confidential appraisal, Murthy writes that the individual is not involved in the appraisal exercise as the appraisal outcome is not at all communicated to the person being appraised. Obisi adds that some managers and supervisors involved in performance appraisal ignore periodic counselling after an incident has taken place.

Open Appraisal Open appraisal system reveals to the appraise his or her strengths and weaknesses, his contributions and failures which are discussed with him or her during performance counselling interview.

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It also makes the employee aware of his key performance areas and the contribution that he is making to the organization. Semi Open and Semi Secret Appraisal This is an appraisal process whereby performance appraisal procedure would be made open at the beginning and later made secret. For instance, if an appraise is asked to fill an appraisal form and the superior rates the subordinate and return his rating to the subordinate to sign and after signing, the subordinate would not hear anything again about his final performance outcome. In some cases, the subordinate would be given the form to fill and after filling and returning the form, the subordinate receives no further communication.

Organizations would do well if they embrace open appraisal whereby the final appraisal outcome is communicated to the appraise. According to Rao cited in Obisi explains some of the reasons why some organizations do not embrace open appraisal. He or she would take it personal and come after me and a female worker may read meanings into my actions.

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It would be safer to let the sleeping dog lie. The subordinate may start targeting my job. The different aspects evaluated using the appraisal forms are as follows: Timeliness in completing the work: The ability of an officer to perform a task within a specified time period.

This ability is seen in terms of the efficiency to complete the task, plan and schedule the work according to the priorities. Knowledge of the job: The knowledge and experience acquired formally and informally that enable an officer to carry out the duties. Ability to organize: The ability to plan, arrange, distribute and mobilize the resources such as labor, equipment, information and finance to implement the tasks of the organization. Ability to make decisions: The ability to examine and consider all relevant factors and views and make right decisions within a specified time.

Ability to solve problems: The ability to identify, consider various alternatives and solve problems. Communication skills: The ability to convey messages, views and instructions orally and in writing in terms of accuracy, effectiveness, clarity and courteousness. Leadership: The ability to supervise, manage and mobilize resources to implement the tasks of the organization.

The ability in thinking, reasoning and having exemplary personal qualities. In this regard, the U.

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Office of Personnel Management has suggested a list of characteristics as providing a frame of reference for effective performance appraisal systems for federal employees. They are: Performance is measured against established comprehensive standards which are written in a clear and explicit style and communicated to the employee at entry on the job and at the beginning of the appraisal period.

Performance appraisal information is used for specific purposes, e. Appraisal criteria and techniques are appropriate to the specific purposes for which the appraisal is being done. The information produced is useful for work- related decisions. Data are objective, reliable, and valid as possible. Instruments for performance review and appraisal are easy for the participants to understand and use. Supervisors are appraised in terms of how competently they perform their supervisory duties. Employees are kept informed about methods and purposes of appraisals. A process exists which allows for impartial resolution of complaints and review. Employees are promptly notified in writing and preferably orally, too, of the results of their performance appraisal. To prevent misunderstanding about whether the appraisal was given or what the appraisal contained, each employee is asked to indicate by signature and date, the receipt of the appraisal, not agreement with it.

There is no attempt to satisfy all the management purposes of the appraisal at a single annual discussion of performance. Systems provide additional opportunity for supervisors and employees to discuss, improve, and plan for job performance. Employees are informed about steps the agency will follow in using appraisal information to make decisions to reward, promote, reassign, train or demote employees Vasu et al, ; Levinson, ; Perry et al, In the early days this would involve giving ratings on a number of scales which focused on attitude and even personality.

Progress shifted the focus towards behavior and performance in relation to goals and competencies. Much of the research around appraisal has been centered the use of ratings in appraisal and how to make them more objective and accurate in reflecting performance and it would be difficult to conclude that this has led to any significant improvements in appraisal practice Fletcher The last decade has seen research move away from psychometric concerns towards recognition of social and motivational aspects of appraisal.

Contextual performance deals with attributes that go beyond task competence and which foster behaviors which enhance the climate and the effectiveness of the organization. Even given these recent developments in thinking the underlying assumption in the appraisal literature is that the job holder is an individual unit to be isolated and measured. The application of a complexity lens to performance appraisal offers a completely different perspective and shifts the eye towards seeing the individual as part of a system of interrelationships.

The starting point for developing this appraisal process was to frame some principles upon which the appraisal would be based and to make explicit our assumptions. These principles and assumptions fall out of the key concepts in complexity described earlier. The most fundamental assumption is that there is no one objective reality that one can stand outside and measure. Connectivity and interdependence mean that one cannot understand the behavior of an individual without taking into account their context and web of relationships. The emphasis of this appraisal process is therefore on multi perspectives and degree feedback.

In addition this process does not attempt to measure individuals. It focuses instead on the relationships and the interdependencies so the essence of the process is a conversation not a survey. Bergen, Performance evaluation working in Tanzania public sector: As part of the public service reforms, the government has been pushing, with little success for over a decade, the implementation of an open employee performance appraisal system.

This failure begs the obvious question: why has implementation not taken root despite the talk? To answer this question it is important to understand that an employee performance appraisal is just a cog in a wheel; in order for it to succeed, there are other supporting systems that ought to be put in place too. There are two key supporting systems or pre-requisites for the effective implementation of an open and objective employee performance appraisal system that have not been fully met under the current implementation environment.

It is virtually impossible to implement the current employee performance appraisal system if these pre-requisites are not met. The first pre-requisite is the institutionalization of work planning at the individual employee level. At this level work planning is a consultative process between employees and their immediate supervisors to establish what is to be achieved and what is to be done including determination of individual work load and budget.

Done during annual operational planning, individual work planning is also an integral part of delegation. An important premise for conducting an employee performance appraisal is the existence of prior agreed work specifications. An agreement must be reached beforehand about what is expected of the employee. Individual work plans that clearly show the results to be achieved, activities to be implemented to achieve the desired results, the required performance standards, and the budget to execute the activities constitute performance agreements between employees and their immediate supervisors.

These agreements also serve as a means for identifying competencies required of the employee to effectively implement the work plan. Owing to their specifications, performance agreements act as objective benchmarks for the ensuing employee performance appraisal. At an appropriate time, the employee is appraised for results achieved in terms of the expected quantity, quality and delivery time. However, this first pre-requisite has not been met because work planning and budget allocation, at the individual employee level, has not been institutionalized.

Arguably, this type of planning is not the best for the department. A better approach is to derive the departmental work plan and budget from the plans and budgets of the staff in the department prepared on the basis of departmental priorities. It ought to be remembered that organizational performance is the sum total of performance of individual employees.

Poor planning at the individual employee level leads not only to poor employee performance but also, ultimately, to poor organizational performance. The second pre-requisite is institutionalization of an activity based budgeting and activity based financial accounting and management systems that ensure approved funds are safeguarded at the individual employee level.

Such a computerized financial accounting and management system prevents overdrawing of funds from other activities and makes available activity based budgetary accounting information to budget holders so that they can track their own expenditure. In this way staff continue to plan and manage their own operations and budget during implementation. However, like for the first pre-requisite, this second pre-requisite also has not been met by public organizations. The staff nurse plays an integral role in clinical nursing education, helping to prepare undergraduate nursing students for professional practice.

As healthcare reform continues to alter the healthcare workforce, providing positive clinical learning experiences can aid recruitment of future nursing staff. The student-staff nurse relationship profoundly affects learning. Staff nurses are meant to be resources for students when faculty members are unavailable. They also serve as nursing role models and educational facilitators of practical nursing skills. Applying classroom concepts to actual practice is an exciting and anticipated part of the curriculum for young, eager nursing students.

They arrive with theory, knowledge, and simulated laboratory experience, ready to practice nursing skills on real patients. Nursing students are partnered with staff nurses as an extension of the learning model and are supervised by a faculty member. A positive experience in the clinical site with a dedicated, kind, nurturing role model can promote learning. A negative experience with an overburdened, unpleasant, uninterested mentor can impede learning. Clinical preparation is crucial.

Hospital surveys have shown new nurses have high expectations. Yet some of these same nurses dislike teaching nursing students. Is the student self-directed? New learners lack experience, which contributes to increased stress. Undergraduates tend to focus narrowly on basic tasks and skills; experienced nurses see the broader picture. Clinical settings place a high priority on clinical competency. Yet new learners may be awkward and slow, which can frustrate a hurried clinician.

Effective mentors have such characteristic behaviors as guiding, cooperating, supporting, and listening actively. See Effective mentoring behaviors by clicking the PDF icon above. When staff nurses lack these characteristics, nursing students may be afraid to ask questions and may lose their confidence. Many challenges exist in clinical teaching. Students and faculty also face obstacles from within.